1. Each of us breathes in 18 kg of air a day.
2. That's about 15 m³,
or a sphere 3 meters in diameter.
3. We need our air to contain about 21% oxygen.
4. That’s about as much as is contained in 3 m³.
5. When this oxygen enters the body, 1–2% is turned into radicals. Hydroxyl radicals are one type of radical.
6. Since 2% of the oxygen we breathe turns into radicals, 0.02 L × 0.02 = 0.0004 L,
so 0.0004 L of radicals are produced by a single breath.
7. At a body temperature of 36˚C, the volume of radicals produced by a single breath is, according to Charles’s law, 0.0004 (L) ÷ (22.4 × (273.15 + 36) ÷ 273.15) × 6.02 × 1023 = 9.498 × 1018
8. The radicals produced in our bodies fight every day against bacteria that can cause illness.
9. By comparison, the volume of hydroxyl radicals generated by nanoe® X in continuous operation is about 415 trillion per 24 hours.
10. The volume of hydroxyl radicals generated by nanoe® X is 1/500,000th of the volume human beings produce by breathing.
|Test Subject||Test name||Testing organisation|
|Impact on chromosomes||Chromosome abnormality test using cultured cells||Japan Bioassay Research Center*⁵
(Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)-compliant facility)
|Impact on respiratory organs||Repeated administration toxicity test||Life Science Research Laboratory*⁶
(Institution registered with the Cause Investigation Institution Network)
|Toxicological and carcinogenic impact||Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity combined test||Food and Drug Safety Center, Hatano Research Institute
|Impact on DNA||Comet Assay||Food and Drug Safety Center, Hatano Research Institute
|Impact on male and female fertility and unborn children||Simplified reproductive toxicity test||Food and Drug Safety Center, Hatano Research Institute
nanoe® X is nanoscale particle ions encapsulated with water. The safety tests are verified as above.